Antenna Systems Guide


Antenna Systems Guide






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TOC



FOREWORD

BACKGROUND

FIGURES

COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Scope

1.2 Organization



2. LAND MOBILE RADIO

2.1 Users

2.2 Frequency Bands

2.3 Rules and Regulations



3. ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS

3.1 History of the Antenna

3.2 Frequency and Wavelength

3.3 Radiation Principles



4. ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS

4.1 Gain and Directivity

4.2 Radiation Pattern

4.3 Antenna Polarization

4.4 Antenna Terminal Impedance

4.5 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

4.6 Effective Length and Effective Area

4.7 Bandwidth



5. ANTENNA TYPES

5.1 Dipoles and Monopoles

5.2 Base-Station Applications

5.3 Corner Reflector

5.4 Yagi

5.5 Log-Periodic

5.6 Arrays

5.7 Unusual Antennas

5.8 Active Antennas

5.9 Diversity Antennas



6. TRANSMISSION LINES AND OTHER COMPONENTS

6.1 Transmission Line Types

6.2 Baluns

6.3 Duplexers

6.4 Combiners

6.5 Intermodulation Suppression

6.6 Multicouplers



7. RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

7.1 Transmission Loss and the Power Budget

7.2 Free-Space Basic Transmission Loss

7.3 Terrestrial Propagation

7.4 Co-Site Analysis



8. ANTENNA SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN

8.1 Define System Requirements

8.2 Design System

8.3 Select Appropriate Components



9. INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND SAFETY

9.1 Vehicular Antenna Systems

9.2 Fixed-Site Antenna Systems

9.3 Lightning Protection

9.4 During Installation

9.5 Perform Routine Maintenance



10. ANTENNA SYSTEM RESOURCES

10.1 Internet Resources

10.2 Periodicals

10.3 Manufacturers’ and Vendors’ Catalogs

11. PROFESSIONAL AND STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS

12. ACRONYMS

13. REFERENCES

14. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS




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Power Plant Engineering

Thermal Power Plant Simulation and ControlBy Damian Flynn

Standard Handbook of Plant EngineeringBy Robert C. Rosaler

Power Plant Control and InstrumentationBy David Lindsley

Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference BookBy ABB Power

Maintenance of Process Instrumentation in Nuclear Power PlantsBy H.M. Hashemian

Practical Power System ProtectionBy Leslie Hewitson

Plant Engineer's HandbookBy R. Keith Mobley

Industrial Power Engineering HandbookBy KC Agrawal

Plant Engineer's Reference BookBy Dennis A. SNOW

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High Speed Board Design Books

High-Speed Analog-To-Digital ConversionBy Michael J. Demler

High Speed Signal Propagation Advanced Black MagicBy Howard W. Johnson

High-Speed Digital Design A Handbook of Black MagicBy Howard Johnson

High-Speed Digital System DesignBy Justin Davis

High-Speed Circuit Board Signal IntegrityBy Stephen C. Thierauf

High-Speed Digital System DesignBy Stephen H. Hall

High Speed A/D Converters Understanding Data Converters Through SPICEBy Alfi Moscovici

High-Speed Design TechniquesBy Walt Kester

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Handbook of instrumentation and controls

Handbook of instrumentation and controls

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MODUL 1 TEMPERATUR DETECTOR

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs)
Temperature
RTD Construction
Summary
THERMOCOUPLES
Thermocouple Construction
Thermocouple Operation
Summary

FUNCTIONAL USES OF TEMPERATURE DETECTORS

Functions of Temperature Detectors
Detector Problems
Environmental Concerns .
Summary

TEMPERATURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Bridge Circuit Construction
Bridge Circuit Operation
Temperature Detection Circuit
Temperature Compensation
Summary


MODUL 2 PRESSURE DETECTORS



PRESSURE DETECTORS
Bellows-Type Detectors
Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors
Summary
PRESSURE DETECTOR FUNCTIONAL USES
Pressure Detector Functions
Detector Failure
Environmental Concerns
Summary
PRESSURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Resistance-Type Transducers
Inductance-Type Transducers
Capacitive-Type Transducers
Detection Circuitry
Summary



MODUL 3 LEVEL DETECTORS


LEVEL DETECTORS
Gauge Glass
Ball Float
Chain Float

Magnetic Bond Method
Conductivity Probe Method
Differential Pressure Level Detectors
Summary
DENSITY COMPENSATION
Specific Volume
Reference Leg Temperature Considerations
Pressurizer Level Instruments
Steam Generator Level Instrument
Summary
LEVEL DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Remote Indication
Environmental Concerns
Summary


MODUL 4 FLOW DETECTORS
HEAD FLOW METERS
Orifice Plate
Venturi Tube
Dall Flow Tube
Pitot Tube .
Summary
OTHER FLOW METERS
Area Flow Meter
Displacement Meter
Hot-Wire Anemometer
Electromagnetic Flowmeter
Ultrasonic Flow Equipment
Summary

STEAM FLOW DETECTION
Summary
FLOW CIRCUITRY
Circuitry .
Use of Flow Indication
Environmental Concerns
Summary


MODUL 5 POSITION INDICATORS
SYNCHRO EQUIPMENT
Synchro Equipment
Summary
SWITCHES
Limit Switches
Reed Switches
Summary
VARIABLE OUTPUT DEVICES
Potentiometer
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
Summary
POSITION INDICATION CIRCUITRY
Environmental Concerns
Summary


MODUL 6 RADIATION DETECTORS
OBJECTIVES
RADIATION DETECTION TERMINOLOGY
Electron-Ion Pair
Specific Ionization
Stopping Power
Summary
RADIATION TYPES
Alpha Particle
Beta Particle
Gamma Ray
Neutron .
Summary
GAS-FILLED DETECTOR
Summary
DETECTOR VOLTAGE
Applied Voltage
Summary
PROPORTIONAL COUNTER
Summary


MODUL 7 PROCESS CONTROLS
PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
Introduction
Terminology
Automatic Control System
Functions of Automatic Control
Elements of Automatic Control
Feedback Control
Summary
CONTROL LOOP DIAGRAMS .
Terminology
Feedback Control System Block Diagram
Process Time Lags
Stability of Automatic Control Systems
Summary
TWO POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS
Controllers
Two Position Controller
Example of Two Position Control
Modes of Automatic Control .
Summary
PROPORTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Mode
Proportional Band
Example of a Proportional Process Control System
Summary
RESET (INTEGRAL) CONTROL SYSTEMS
Reset Control (Integral)
Definition of Integral Control
Example of an Integral Flow Control System
Properties of Integral Control
Summary
PROPORTIONAL PLUS RESET CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional Plus Reset
Example of Proportional Plus Reset Control
Reset Windup
Summary
PROPORTIONAL PLUS RATE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional-Derivative
Definition of Derivative Control
Example of Proportional Plus Rate Control
Applications
Summary
PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional-Integral-Derivative
Proportional Plus Reset Plus Rate Controller Actions
Summary
CONTROLLERS
Controllers
Control Stations
Self-Balancing Control Stations
Summary
VALVE ACTUATORS
Actuators
Pneumatic Actuators
Hydraulic Actuators
Electric Solenoid Actuators
Electric Motor Actuators
Summary


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Electrical Exterior Facilities


Electrical Exterior Facilities






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TOC



CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION



I-PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS

II-SAFETY

III-AVOIDING PROBLEMS



CHAPTERS 2. INSPECTION AND TESTS



I-PERFORMANCE

II-REQUIREMENTS



CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS



I-GOVERNING CONSIDERATIONS

II-STRUCTURE MAINTENANCE

III-SUBSTATION YARDS

IV-INSULATORS

V-BUS STRUCTURES

VI-INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

VII-BUSHINGS



CHAPTER 4. OVERHEAD DISTRIBUTION



I-ASSOCIATED OVERHEAD DISTRIBUTION GUIDANCE

II-DEFINING VOLTAGE  NOMENCLATURE

III-TYPES OF MAINTENANCE

IV-WOOD POLES

V-CROSSARMS, BRACES, AND PLATFORMS

VI-MAINTENANCE WOOD PRESERVATION

VII-METAL POLES

VIII-CONCRETE POLES

IX-OVERHEAD OPEN WIRE CONDUCTORS

X-OVERHEAD CABLE

XI-CONDUCTOR CONNECTIONS

XII-POLE-LINE INSULATORS

XIII-GUYS

XIV-TREE TRIMMING

XV-LIVE-LINE MAINTENANCE

XVI-AERIAL LIFT REQUIREMENTS

Aerial lift construction

Aerial lift specificss



CHAPTER 5. UNDERGROUND AND SUBMARINE CABLES

I-ASSOCIATED GUIDANCE

II-SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

III-INSPECTION

IV-MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF DUCT SYSTEMS

V-CABLE FAULTS AND FAULT LOCATIONS

VI-CABLE REPAIR

VII-CABLE TESTING

IX-UNDERGROUND CORROSION CONTROL



CHAPTER 6. OUTDOOR LIGHTING



I-LIGHTING AND CIRCUIT TYPES

II-MULTIPLE TYPE LIGHTING

III-LIGHT DISTRIBUTION

IV-SERIES TYPE AIRFIELD LIGHTING



CHAPTER 7. TRANSFORMERS AND REGULATORS



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-MAINTENANCE



CHAPTER 8. OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE AND SWITCHING DEVICES



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-FUSES

III-SWITCHES

IV-CIRCUIT BREAKERS

V-MISCELLANEOUS DEVICES



CHAPTER  9. OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-SURGE (LIGHTNING) ARRESTERS

III-OTHER DEVICES



CHAPTER  10. GROUNDING



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-MAINTENANCE

III-TESTING



CHAPTER 11. RELAYS AND CONTROLS

I–RELAYS, ELECTRIC POWER APPARATUS

II-CONTROLS



CHAPTER 12. INSTRUMENTS AND METERS



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

III-CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT

IV-REPAIRS

V-TROUBLESHOOTING



CHAPTER 13. POWER CAPACITORS



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION

III-TESTS



CHAPTER  14. STORAGE BATTERIES



I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-FLOODED LEAD-ACID BATTERY MAINTENANCE

III-FLOODED LEAD-ACID BATTERY CHARGING

IV-VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID CELL BATTERIES

V-Nickel-cadmium cell batteries

VI-CHECKS AND TROUBLESHOOTING

VII-BATTERY CHARGING EQUIPMENT

VIII-PLACING A NEW BATTERY IN SERVICE

IX-PUTTING A BATTERY IN STORAGE

X-REPLACEMENT AND DISPOSAL



CHAPTER  15. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT



I-USE

II-HAZARDOUS MATERIAL PROCEDURES

III-PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

IV-CLIMBING EQUIPMENT

V-LIVE-LINE TOOLS

VI-HAND TOOLS

VII-ROPE

VIII-LARGE PORTABLE AND MOBILE EQUIPMENT

IX-ELECTRICAL INSPECTING AND TESTING EQUIPMENT



CHAPTER 16. ELECTRICAL SERVICE INTERFERENCE

I-DISTURBANCE PRODUCERS

II-ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE

III-HARMONIC INTERFERENCE



CHAPTER  17. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES

I-CONSIDERATIONS

II-SCHEDULES

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Handbook of electrical safety








Handbook of electrical safety



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1.0 INTRODUCTION1-1



1.1 PURPOSE



1.2 SCOPE



1.3 AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION (AHJ)



2.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS



2.1 ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE OR REPAIRS



2.1.1 WORK ON ENERGIZED/DEENERGIZED



ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT



2.1.2 CONSIDERATIONS FOR WORKING ON



ENERGIZED SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT



2.1.3. SAFETY WATCH RESPONSIBILITIES



AND QUALIFICATIONS



2.2 BASIC SAFEGUARDS



2.3 RESPONSIBILITIES



2.3.1 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES



2.3.2 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES



2.4 REVIEWS/INSPECTIONS



2.5 APPROVAL OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT



2.6 CODES, STANDARDS, AND REGULATIONS



2.7 GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS



2.7.1 HOW A GFCI WORKS



2.7.2 USES



2.8 TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS OF QUALIFIED WORKERS



2.8.1 FORMAL TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS



2.8.2 TRAINING OF SAFETY PERSONNEL



2.9 WORKING SPACE AROUND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT



2.9.1 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT RATED AT 600 VOLTS OR LESS



2.9.2 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT RATED OVER 600 VOLTS



2.10 IDENTIFICATION OF DISCONNECTION MEANS



2.10.1 DISCONNECTING MEANS



2.10.2 PANELBOARD CIRCUIT DIRECTORIES



2.10.3 ENCLOSURE LABELING



2.10.4 LOAD LABELING



2.10.5 SOURCE LABELING



2.11 WORK INSTRUCTIONS



2.11.1 SAFE WORK INSTRUCTIONS AND SUPERVISION



2.11.2 WORK INSTRUCTIONS



2.11.3 WORK PLANNING



2.12 ELECTRICAL PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)



2.12.1 MANAGEMENT’S RESPONSIBILITIES



2.12.2 INSPECTING PPE



2.12.3 CLEANING AND ELECTRICAL TESTING OF PPE



2.12.3.1 TESTING



2.12.3.2 TESTING APPARATUS



2.12.3.3 RETESTED PPE



2.12.4 LIVE-LINE TOOLS



2.12.4.1 FIBERGLASS-HANDLED TOOLS



2.12.4.2 WOODEN-HANDLED TOOLS



2.12.5 MAXIMUM USAGE VOLTAGE



2.12.6 MAXIMUM USAGE VOLTAGE FOR LIVE-LINE TOOLS



2.12.7 RUBBER-INSULATED GLOVES



2.12.8 STORAGE



2.12.9 SAFETY SHOES, HATS, AND GLASSES



2.13 WORK PRACTICES



2.13.1 TRAINING



2.13.1.1 LIVE PARTS



2.13.1.2 SAFE PROCEDURE



2.13.1.3 CIRCUITS AND EQUIPMENT



2.13.1.4 STORED ELECTRICAL ENERGY



2.13.1.5 STORED NONELECTRICAL ENERGY



2.13.1.6 LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURE



2.13.2 VERIFICATION OF DEENERGIZED CONDITION



2.13.2.1 VOLTAGE VERIFICATION TEST



2.13.2.2 APPLICATION OF GROUNDS



2.13.3 REENERGIZING EQUIPMENT



2.13.3.1 TESTS AND VISUAL INSPECTIONS



2.13.3.2 WARNING EMPLOYEES



2.13.3.3 REMOVING LOCK AND TAG



2.13.4 SAFE ENERGIZED WORK (HOT WORK)



2.13.4.1 APPROACH DISTANCE



2.13.4.2 TWO WORKERS



2.13.4.3 ELECTRICAL SAFETY RULES



2.13.4.4 UNEXPECTED ELECTRICAL HAZARDS



2.13.4.5 ILLUMINATION



2.13.4.6 SYSTEMS UNDER LOAD



2.13.4.7 WORKING WITH TEST INSTRUMENTS



AND EQUIPMENT



2.13.4.7.1 QUALIFIED EMPLOYEES



2.13.4.7.2 VISUAL INSPECTIONS



2.13.4.7.3 RATING INSTRUMENTS AND



EQUIPMENT



2.13.4.7.4 CALIBRATION OF



ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS

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Radiation Protection Manual

Radiation Protection Manual



 



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File : pdf, 1.95 MB, 175 pages



TOC



Chapter 1. Organization of USACE Radiation Protection Program.

Purpose

Applicability

Policy

Management Commitment,Involvement, and Leadership

Scope

Overview of this Manual



Chapter 2. Personnel Responsibilities and Qualifications.



Chapter 3. Introduction to Radiation.

Atomic Structure

Radioactive Decay

Activity

Decay Law

Types of Ionizing

Radiation

Interaction of Radiation With Matter

Human Health Effects

Determinants of Dose

Background Radiation

Radiation Quantities

Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Ways to Minimize Exposure

Standing Operating Procedures

Monitoring and Surveying Equipment



Chapter 4.  Licensing.

Overview of Regulatory Agencies

Types of NRC Radioactive Material Licenses

‘Storage Only’ Licensing

Radiation Generating Devices

Reciprocity Requirements

Army Radiation Authorization

Army Radiation Permits and Other Service Installation Permits

Applying for an NRC License

Applying for an ARA

Amendment Requests

Renewing Licenses or ARAs

Transfer of Radioactive Materials

Terminating a Radioactive Material License or ARAs

Information Flow through Applicable USACE Channels



Chapter 5.  Dose Limits and ALARA.

Occupational Dose Limit Structure

USACE Dose Limits

NRC and Agreement State Dose Limits

OSHA Dose Limits

Monitoring requirements

Doses to the Public



Chapter 6.  Working with Radiation.

Caution Signs and Labels

Airborne Radioactivity

Rooms/Areas in Which Radioactive Material is No Longer Used or Stored

Receiving Radioactive Material

Radioactive Material and Radiation Generating Device Inventory

Storing Radioactive Material

Contamination Control

Wipe Tests

Leak Testing

Exposure Rate Surveys

Accident/Incident Response

Accident/Incident Reporting

Audits and Reviews



Chapter 7. Personnel Monitoring.

External Monitoring

Internal Monitoring

Advanced Monitoring

Exposure Reporting



Chapter 8. Transportation of Radioactive Material.

Purpose

Applicability

Regulations

Procedures

Packaging

Marking

Labeling

Placarding

Manifesting

Hazardous Waste Manifesting

Emergency Response Information

Hazmat Employee Training

Exceptions



Chapter 9. Waste Management.

Regulation of Radioactive Wastes

Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW)

Elements of a Waste Management Program

Material Tracking

Waste Minimization

Waste Recycling

Waste Storage

Waste Disposal

Radionuclide Concentrations



Chapter 10. Laser Safety.

Classifications of Lasers

Safety features and Labeling Requirements

Laser Protection Program

OSHA Standards

USACE Standards

Protective Eyewear



Chapter 11. Radio Frequency (RF) and Microwave Safety.

DA Limits

USACE Limits

OSHA Regulations

General Guidance

Warning Signs

RF Safety Training




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PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)



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TOC



2. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.1.1 Ladder Logic

2.1.2 Programming

2.1.3 PLC Connections

2.1.4 Ladder Logic Inputs

2.1.5 Ladder Logic Outputs

2.2 A CASE STUDY

2.3 SUMMARY

2.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

2.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

2.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



3. PLC HARDWARE

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

3.2.1 Inputs

3.2.2 Output Modules

3.3 RELAYS

3.4 A CASE STUDY

3.5 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS

3.5.1 JIC Wiring Symbols

3.6 SUMMARY

3.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

3.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

3.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



4. LOGICAL SENSORS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 SENSOR WIRING

4.2.1 Switches

4.2.2 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)

4.2.3 Sinking/Sourcing

4.2.4 Solid State Relays

4.3 PRESENCE DETECTION

4.3.1 Contact Switches

4.3.2 Reed Switches

4.3.3 Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors

4.3.4 Capacitive Sensors

4.3.5 Inductive Sensors

4.3.6 Ultrasonic

4.3.7 Hall Effect

4.3.8 Fluid Flow

4.4 SUMMARY

4.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

4.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

4.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



5. LOGICAL ACTUATORS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 SOLENOIDS

5.3 VALVES

5.4 CYLINDERS

5.5 HYDRAULICS

5.6 PNEUMATICS

5.7 MOTORS

5.8 COMPUTERS

5.9 OTHERS

5.10 SUMMARY

5.11 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

5.12 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

5.13 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



6. BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

6.3 LOGIC DESIGN

6.3.1 Boolean Algebra Techniques

6.4 COMMON LOGIC FORMS

6.4.1 Complex Gate Forms

6.4.2 Multiplexers

6.5 SIMPLE DESIGN CASES

6.5.1 Basic Logic Functions

6.5.2 Car Safety System

6.5.3 Motor Forward/Reverse

6.5.4 A Burglar Alarm

6.6 SUMMARY

6.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

6.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

6.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



7. KARNAUGHMAPS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 SUMMARY

7.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

7.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

7.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



8. PLC OPERATION

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 OPERATION SEQUENCE

8.2.1 The Input and Output Scans

8.2.2 The Logic Scan

8.3 PLC STATUS

8.4 MEMORY TYPES

8.5 SOFTWARE BASED PLCS

8.6 SUMMARY

8.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

8.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

8.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



9. LATCHES, TIMERS, COUNTERS AND MORE

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 LATCHES

9.3 TIMERS

9.4 COUNTERS

9.5 MASTER CONTROL RELAYS (MCRs)

9.6 INTERNAL RELAYS

9.7 DESIGN CASES

9.7.1 Basic Counters And Timers

9.7.2 More Timers And Counters

9.7.3 Deadman Switch

9.7.4 Conveyor

9.7.5 Accept/Reject Sorting

9.7.6 Shear Press

9.8 SUMMARY

9.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

9.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

9.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



10. STRUCTURED LOGIC DESIGN

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 PROCESS SEQUENCE BITS

10.3 TIMING DIAGRAMS

10.4 DESIGN CASES

10.5 SUMMARY

10.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

10.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

10.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



11. FLOWCHART BASED DESIGN

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 BLOCK LOGIC

11.3 SEQUENCE BITS

11.4 SUMMARY

11.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

11.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

11.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



12. STATE BASED DESIGN

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.1.1 State Diagram Example

12.1.2 Conversion to Ladder Logic

Block Logic Conversion

State Equations

State-Transition Equations

12.2 SUMMARY

12.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

12.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

12.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



13. NUMBERS AND DATA

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 NUMERICAL VALUES

13.2.1 Binary

Boolean Operations

Binary Mathematics

13.2.2 Other Base Number Systems

13.2.3 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)

13.3 DATA CHARACTERIZATION

13.3.1 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

13.3.2 Parity

13.3.3 Checksums

13.3.4 Gray Code

13.4 SUMMARY

13.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

13.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

13.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



14. PLCMEMORY

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 MEMORY ADDRESSES

14.3 PROGRAM FILES

14.4 DATA FILES

14.4.1 User Bit Memory

14.4.2 Timer Counter Memory

14.4.3 PLC Status Bits (for PLC-5s and Micrologix)

14.4.4 User Function Control Memory

14.4.5 Integer Memory

14.4.6 Floating Point Memory

14.5 SUMMARY

14.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

14.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

14.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



15. LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 DATA HANDLING

15.2.1 Move Functions

15.2.2 Mathematical Functions

15.2.3 Conversions

15.2.4 Array Data Functions

Statistics

Block Operations

15.3 LOGICAL FUNCTIONS

15.3.1 Comparison of Values

15.3.2 Boolean Functions

15.4 DESIGN CASES

15.4.1 Simple Calculation

15.4.2 For-Next

15.4.3 Series Calculation

15.4.4 Flashing Lights

15.5 SUMMARY

15.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

15.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

15.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



16. ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS

16.1 INTRODUCTION

16.2 LIST FUNCTIONS

16.2.1 Shift Registers

16.2.2 Stacks

16.2.3 Sequencers

16.3 PROGRAM CONTROL

16.3.1 Branching and Looping

16.3.2 Fault Detection and Interrupts

16.4 INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS

16.4.1 Immediate I/O Instructions

16.4.2 Block Transfer Functions

16.5 DESIGN TECHNIQUES

16.5.1 State Diagrams

16.6 DESIGN CASES

16.6.1 If-Then

16.6.2 Traffic Light

16.7 SUMMARY

16.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

16.9 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

16.10 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



17. OPEN CONTROLLERS

17.1 INTRODUCTION

17.2 IEC 61131

17.3 OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS

17.4 SUMMARY

17.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

17.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

17.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



18. INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING

18.1 INTRODUCTION

18.2 THE IEC 61131 VERSION

18.3 THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION

18.4 SUMMARY

18.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

18.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

18.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



19. STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING

19.1 INTRODUCTION

19.2 THE LANGUAGE

19.3 SUMMARY

19.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

19.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

19.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



20. SEQUENTIAL FUNCTION CHARTS

20.1 INTRODUCTION

20.2 A COMPARISON OF METHODS

20.3 SUMMARY

20.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

20.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

20.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



21. FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING

21.1 INTRODUCTION

21.2 CREATING FUNCTION BLOCKS

21.3 DESIGN CASE

21.4 SUMMARY

21.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

21.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

21.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



22. ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

22.1 INTRODUCTION

22.2 ANALOG INPUTS

22.2.1 Analog Inputs With a PLC

22.3 ANALOG OUTPUTS

22.3.1 Analog Outputs With A PLC

22.3.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Outputs

22.3.3 Shielding

22.4 DESIGN CASES

22.4.1 Process Monitor

22.5 SUMMARY

22.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

22.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

22.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



23. CONTINUOUS SENSORS

23.1 INTRODUCTION

23.2 INDUSTRIAL SENSORS

23.2.1 Angular Displacement

Potentiometers

23.2.2 Encoders

Tachometers

23.2.3 Linear Position

Potentiometers

Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)

Moire Fringes

Accelerometers

23.2.4 Forces and Moments

Strain Gages

Piezoelectric

23.2.5 Liquids and Gases

Pressure

Venturi Valves

Coriolis Flow Meter

Magnetic Flow Meter

Ultrasonic Flow Meter

Vortex Flow Meter

Positive Displacement Meters

Pitot Tubes

23.2.6 Temperature

Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Other Sensors

23.2.7 Light

Light Dependant Resistors (LDR)

23.2.8 Chemical

pH

Conductivity

23.2.9 Others

23.3 INPUT ISSUES

23.4 SENSOR GLOSSARY

23.5 SUMMARY

23.6 REFERENCES

23.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

23.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

23.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



24. CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS

24.1 INTRODUCTION

24.2 ELECTRIC MOTORS

24.2.1 Basic Brushed DC Motors

24.2.2 AC Motors

24.2.3 Brushless DC Motors

24.2.4 Stepper Motors

24.2.5 Wound Field Motors

24.3 HYDRAULICS

24.4 OTHER SYSTEMS

24.5 SUMMARY

24.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

24.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

24.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



25. CONTINUOUS CONTROL

25.1 INTRODUCTION

25.2 CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS

25.3 CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS

25.3.1 Block Diagrams

25.3.2 Feedback Control Systems

25.3.3 Proportional Controllers

25.3.4 PID Control Systems

25.4 DESIGN CASES

25.4.1 Oven Temperature Control

25.4.2 Water Tank Level Control

25.5 SUMMARY

25.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

25.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

25.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



26. FUZZY LOGIC

26.1 INTRODUCTION

26.2 COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS

26.3 REFERENCES

26.4 SUMMARY

26.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

26.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

26.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



27. SERIAL COMMUNICATION

27.1 INTRODUCTION

27.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

27.2.1 RS-232

ASCII Functions

27.3 PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS

27.4 DESIGN CASES

27.4.1 PLC Interface To a Robot

27.5 SUMMARY

27.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

27.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

27.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



28. NETWORKING

28.1 INTRODUCTION

28.1.1 Topology

28.1.2 OSI Network Model

28.1.3 Networking Hardware

28.1.4 Control Network Issues

28.2 NETWORK STANDARDS

28.2.1 Devicenet

28.2.2 CANbus

28.2.3 Controlnet

28.2.4 Ethernet

28.2.5 Profibus

28.2.6 Sercos

28.3 PROPRIETARY NETWORKS

28.3.1 Data Highway

28.4 NETWORK COMPARISONS

28.5 DESIGN CASES

28.5.1 Devicenet

28.6 SUMMARY

28.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

28.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

28.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



29. INTERNET

29.1 INTRODUCTION

29.1.1 Computer Addresses

IPV6

29.1.2 Phone Lines

29.1.3 Mail Transfer Protocols

29.1.4 FTP - File Transfer Protocol

29.1.5 HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol

29.1.6 Novell

29.1.7 Security

Firewall

IP Masquerading

29.1.8 HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language

29.1.9 URLs

29.1.10 Encryption

29.1.11 Compression

29.1.12 Clients and Servers

29.1.13 Java

29.1.14 Javascript

29.1.15 CGI

29.1.16 ActiveX

29.1.17 Graphics

29.2 DESIGN CASES

29.2.1 Remote Monitoring System

29.3 SUMMARY

29.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

29.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

29.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



30. HUMANMACHINE INTERFACES (HMI)

30.1 INTRODUCTION

30.2 HMI/MMI DESIGN

30.3 DESIGN CASES

30.4 SUMMARY

30.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

30.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

30.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



31. ELECTRICAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

31.1 INTRODUCTION

31.2 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS

31.2.1 Selecting Voltages

31.2.2 Grounding

31.2.3 Wiring

31.2.4 Suppressors

31.2.5 PLC Enclosures

31.2.6 Wire and Cable Grouping

31.3 FAIL-SAFE DESIGN

31.4 SAFETY RULES SUMMARY

31.5 REFERENCES

31.6 SUMMARY

31.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

31.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

31.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



32. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

32.1 INTRODUCTION

32.1.1 Fail Safe Design

32.2 DEBUGGING

32.2.1 Troubleshooting

32.2.2 Forcing

32.3 PROCESS MODELLING

32.4 PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS

32.4.1 Developing a Program Structure

32.4.2 Program Verification and Simulation

32.5 DOCUMENTATION

32.6 COMMISIONING

32.7 REFERENCES

32.8 SUMMARY

32.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

32.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

32.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



33. SELECTING A PLC

33.1 INTRODUCTION

33.2 SPECIAL I/O MODULES

33.3 SUMMARY

33.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

33.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

33.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS



34. FUNCTION REFERENCE

34.1 FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS

34.1.1 General Functions

34.1.2 Program Control

34.1.3 Timers and Counters

34.1.4 Compare

34.1.5 Calculation and Conversion

34.1.6 Logical

34.1.7 Move

34.1.8 File

34.1.9 List

34.1.10 Program Control

34.1.11 Advanced Input/Output

34.1.12 String

34.2 DATA TYPES

Read more...

Microprocessor and Micro Controllers

Electric-electronic-control systems use microcontrollers.........

Part-1
Part-2
Part-3
Part-4
Part-5
Part-6
Part-7
Part-8
Part-9

123 PIC Microcontroller Experiments for the Evil Genius By: Myke Predko

Microcontroller Programming: The Microchip PIC

PIC Microcontroller w/Proteus Simulation
Link-1
Link-2

Analog and Digital Circuits for Electronic Control System Applications using the TI MSP430 Microcontroller
Download
pw:books_for_all

WiFi Toys 15 cool wireless projects

Programming and customizing PIC microcontroller_2ed_Mike Predko.rar(77,9MB)

Complete Guide to PIC_MikroElektronika_1999.rar(1,18 MB)

Introduction to C and the PIC Microcontroller.rar(40,46 KB)

Designing Embedded Systems with PIC Microcontrollers.Tim Wilmshurst_2007.rar (7,51 MB)

Microcontroller based applied digital control_Dogan Ibrahim 2006.rar(4,45 MB)

Microcontroller Interfacing Circuits_2003.rar(315,30 KB)

PIC in Practice A Project-based Approach_2ed_D.W.Smith 2006.rar(1,34 MB)

PIC Microcontroller Project Book_John Lovine_2000.rar(12,34 MB)

PIC programming laboratory by James Gribley.rar(18,59 MB)

BASIC for pic micro_Nebojsa Matic.rar(977,59 KB)

Source Code for 123 PIC Microcontroller Experiments for the Evil Genius.rar(641,55 KB)

Programming 16-Bit PIC Microcontrollers in C_Learning to Fly the PIC24_Lucio DiJasio_2007.rar(3,31 MB)

http://w14.easy-share.com/5735891.html
30 Projects using PIC BASIC and PIC BASICPro_Dogan Ibrahim_2006.rar(4,04 MB)

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2. Air Pollution Control Systems for Boiler and Incinerators



3. Basic Hydraulic Systems and Components



4. Beginners Introduction to the Assembly Language of ATMEL AVR Microprocessors



5. Central boiler plants



6. Control Valve Handbook



7. Coordinated power system protection



8. Diesel Electric Generating Plants



9. Electrical Exterior Facilities



10. Electrical Safety Operation & Maintenance



11. Electrical Power Supply and Distribution



12. Electrical Engineering Cathodic Protection



13. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook



14. Engineering symbology, prints and drawing



15. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics



16. Fuel cell handbook



17. GPS basics



18. Grounding and Bonding



19. Handbook of electrical safety



20. Handbook of electrical science



21. Handbook of instrumentation and control



22. Integration and Automation of Manufacturing System



23. Interior Electrical Systems



24. Modern Signal Processing



25. Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)



26. Network Protection and Automation Guide (Electrical Power System)



27. Operation, maintenance and repair auxiliary generator



28. Oscillator Resonator Design Tutorial



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32. Radiation Protection Manual



33. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning



34. Remote Sensing



35. Safety and Health Requirements



36. Steam Power Plants



37. Security Engineering : Electronic Security System



38. Telecommunications Building Cabling Systems Planning and Design



39. The art and science of protective relaying



40. UPS selection, installation and maintenance



41. Working Safely with Photovoltaic System




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Basic Hydraulic Systems and Components


Basic Hydraulic Systems and Components



 



Download



File: 1.6 MB, 67 pages



Lesson 1:



Hydraulic Reservoirs, Filters, Pumps, Accumulators, and Motors

Practice Exercise

Answer Key and Feedback



Lesson 2: Basic Construction and Operation of Hydraulic Actuating Devices, Flow Control, and Directional Devices 25 Practice Exercise

Answer Key and Feedback



Lesson 3: Hydraulic Pressure-Limiting, Controlling, and Sensing Devices

Practice Exercise

Answer Key and Feedback

Examination

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Central boiler plants


Central boiler plants



 



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File : 34 MB (5 file)



 



TOC



CHAPTER 1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Section I.

Introduction

Purpose

Central Boiler Plants

Equipment

Section II.

Elementary Combustion Principles

Fossil Fuels

Combustion

Combustion of Coal

Combustion of Oil

Combustion of Natural Gas

Soot and Smoke

Flue Gas Analysis and Temperature

Combustion Efficiency

Boiler Efficiency.

Central Boiler Plant Efficiency

Section III.

Principles of Steam and Hot Water Generation

Basic Principles

Heat Transfer



CHAPTER 2. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

Boilers and Heat Exchangers

Boiler Classifications

Boiler Design Requirements

F a b r i c a t ion .

Fire Tube Boilers

Water Tube Boilers

Hot Water Generators

Economizers

Air Heaters

Boiler Accessories and Fittings

ASME Requirements

Gage Glass, Gage Cocks

Water Columns

Pressure Gage, Temperature Gage

Safety Valves

Boiler Outlet Valves

Blowoff Valves and Piping.

Fusible Plugs .

Sootblowers .

Fuel- Handling and Combustion Equipment



CHAPTER 3. OPERATION

Section I.

Preliminary Operating Procedures

Plant Operation Considerations

Standing Operating Procedures

Daily and Monthly Boiler Plant Operating Logs

Inspection

Applicable Codes

Basis for Comments

Preparation for Startup

Starting Fire

Warm-up Time .

Placing a High Pressue Steam Boiler in Service

Placing a Hot Water Boiler in Service

Section II.

Operating Adjustments and Procedures

Boiler Operation.

Maintaining Pressure or Temperature

Feedwater and Boiler Water Treatment

Controlling Feedwater

Boiler Accessories

Coal Firing Procedures

Combustion Controls

Boiler Safety Controls

Centrifugal Pumps

Direct-acting Pumps

Injectors

Fans

Feedwater Heating and Treatment

Economizer, Air Heater and Pollution Control

Secion III

Optimizing Central Plant Efficiency

Optimizing Combustion Efficiency

Optimizing Boiler Plant Efficiency

Optimizing Central Boiler Plant Efficiency



Chapter 4 Water Treatment for Boiler Plant

Section I Introduction

Objectives of water treatment

Impurities in water

Results and Reactions of Boiler Water Impurities

Controlling Impurities

Treatment Requirements

Section II Equipment and Chemicals

External Treatment Equipment

Internal Treatment

Blowdown

Section III Operation

Boiler Water Treatment Operation Log

Procurement of Standard and Special Treatment Chemicals

Care and Mixing of Treatment Chemicals

Initial Flushing and Cleaning

Flushing and Cleaning of Scaled and Corroded Boilers

Sampling

Chemical Analysis

General Operation of External Treatment Equipment

Safety Precautions

Care of Idle Steel Boilers



Chapter 5 Inspection and Preventive Maintenance

Introduction

Purpose and Scope

Types of Maintenance

Responsibility

Inspection

Housekeeping

Utilities Inspection and Service Records

Tools

Spare Parts

Special Supplies

Scheduled Preventive Maintenance

Scheduling and Use of The Information

Boilers

Economizers

Air Heaters

Water Columns

Safety Valves

Fusible Plugs

Sootblowers

Stokers

Pulverized Coal Equipment

Coal Handling Equipment

Ash Handling Equipment

Oil Burners

Oil Handling Equipment

Gas Burners .

Feedwater Drum Level Controls

Combustion Controls

Boiler Safety Controls

Instrumentation

Mechanical Collectors

Stacks

Zeolite Water Softeners

Hot Lime-Soda Softeners

Deaerating Heaters and Dearators

Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

Reciprocating Pumps

Steam Injectors

Steam Turbine (Non-Condensing)

Air Compressors

Steam Traps

Electric Motors

Forced-Draft and Induced-Draft Fans

Command Inspections

Technical Inspection

Major Army Command Inspections

REFERENCES

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

External Treatment Plants

Boiler Water

Miscellaneous Tests

Read more...

Engineering Symbology, prints and drawing


Engineering Symbology, prints and drawing



 



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MODUL 1, 2, 3

ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,AND DRAWING



INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING

Introduction

Anatomy of a Drawing

The Title Block

Grid System

Revision Block

Changes

Notes and Legend

Summary

INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES OF DRAWINGS,

VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES .

Categories of Drawings

Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&IDs)

Electrical Single Lines and Schematics

Electronic Diagrams and Schematics

Logic Diagrams and Prints

Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings .

Drawing Format

Views and Perspectives

Summary

ENGINEERING FLUIDS DIAGRAMS AND PRINTS

Symbology

Valve Symbols

Valve Actuators

Control Valve Designations

Piping Systems

Instrumentation

Sensing Devices and Detectors

Modifiers and Transmitters

Indicators and Recorders .

Controllers

Examples of Simple Instrument Loops

Components

Miscellaneous P&ID Symbols

Summary

READING ENGINEERING P&IDs

Standards and Conventions for Valve Status

Summary

P&ID PRINT READING EXAMPLE

Example

Summary

FLUID POWER P&IDs

Fluid Power Diagrams and Schematics .

Pumps

Reservoirs

Actuator

Piping

Valves

Reading Fluid Power Diagrams

Types of Fluid Power Diagrams

Summary




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Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics


Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics



 



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DC



Basic Concepts of Electricity



Ohm’s Law



Electrical Safety



Scientific Notation and Metric Prefixes



Series and Parallel Circuits



Divider Circuits and Kirchhoff’S Laws



Series-Parallel Combination Circuits



DC Metering Circuits



Electrical Instrumentation Signal



DC Network Analysis



Batteries and Power Systems



Physics of Conductors and Insulators



Capacitors



Magnetism and Electromagnetism



Inductors



RC and L/R Time Constant



AC



Basic AC Theory



Complex Numbers



Reactance and Impedance — Inductive



Reactance and Impedance — Capacitive



Reactance and Impedance — R, L, and C



Resonance



Mixed-Frequency AC Signals



Filters



Transformers



Polyphase AC Circuits



Power Factor



AC Metering Circuits



AC Motors



Transmission Lines



Semiconductors



Amplifiers and Active Devices



Solid-State Device Theory



Diodes and Rectifiers



Bipolar Junction Transistors



Junction Field-Effect Transistors



Insulated-Gate Field-Effect Transistors



Thyristors



Operational Amplifiers



Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits



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Binary Arithmetic



Logic Gates



Switches



Electromechanical Relays



Ladder Logic



Boolean Algebra



Karnaugh Mapping



Multivibrators



Counters



Shift Registers



Digital-Analog Conversion



Digital Communication



Digital Storage (Memory)



Principles of Digital Computing



Experiments



Introduction



Basic Concepts and Test Equipment



DC Circuits



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Discrete Semiconductor Circuits



Analog Integrated Circuits



Digital Integrated Circuits




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Fuel cell handbook


Fuel cell handbook



 



Download: pdf1



TOC



1. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW1-1

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 UNIT CELLS 1-2

1.2.1 Basic Structure 1-2

1.2.2 Critical Functions of Cell Components

1.3 FUEL CELL STACKING1-4

1.3.1 Planar-Bipolar Stacking 1-4

1.3.2 Stacks with Tubular Cells 1-5

1.4 FUEL CELL SYSTEMS1-5

1.5 FUEL CELL TYPES1-7

1.5.1 Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC1-9

1.5.2 Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC1-10

1.5.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC1-10

1.5.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 1-11

1.5.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 1-12

1.6 CHARACTERISTICS1-12

1.7 ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES1-14

1.8 APPLICATIONS, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND STATUS 1-15

1.8.1 Stationary Electric Power1-15

1.8.2 Distributed Generation 1-20

1.8.3 Vehicle Motive Power1-22

1.8.4 Space and Other Closed Environment Power 1-23

1.8.5 Auxiliary Power Systems 1-23

1.8.6 Derivative Applications1-32

1.9 REFERENCES1-32

2. FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE2-1

2.1 THE ROLE OF GIBBS FREE ENERGY AND NERNST POTENTIAL2-1

2.2 IDEAL PERFORMANCE 2-4

2.3 CELL ENERGY BALANCE2-7

2.4 CELL EFFICIENCY 2-7

2.5 ACTUAL PERFORMANCE2-10

2.6 FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE VARIABLES2-18

2.7 MATHEMATICAL MODELS2-24

2.7.1 Value-in-Use Models 2-26

2.7.2 Application Models2-27

2.7.3 Thermodynamic System Models2-27

2.7.4 3-D Cell / Stack Models 2-29

2.7.5 1-D Cell Models2-31

2.7.6 Electrode Models2-32

2.8 REFERENCES2-33

3. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS 3-1

3.1 CELL COMPONENTS3-1

3.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 3-2

3.1.2 Component Development3-11

3.2 PERFORMANCE 3-14



3.3 PEFC SYSTEMS3-16

3.3.1 Direct Hydrogen PEFC Systems 3-16

3.3.2 Reformer-Based PEFC Systems3-17

3.3.3 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems 3-19

3.4 PEFC APPLICATIONS3-21

3.4.1 Transportation Applications3-21

3.4.2 Stationary Applications 3-22

3.5 REFERENCES3-22

4. ALKALINE FUEL CELL4-1

4.1 CELL COMPONENTS4-5

4.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 4-5

4.1.2 Development Components 4-6

4.2 PERFORMANCE 4-7

4.2.1 Effect of Pressure 4-8

4.2.2 Effect of Temperature 4-9

4.2.3 Effect of Impurities -11

4.2.4 Effects of Current Density4-12

4.2.5 Effects of Cell Life4-14

4.3 SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR AFC4-14

4.4 REFERENCES4-16

5. PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL 5-1

5.1 CELL COMPONENTS5-2

5.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 5-2

5.1.2 Development Components 5-6

5.2 PERFORMANCE 5-11

5.2.1 Effect of Pressure 5-12

5.2.2 Effect of Temperature 5-13

5.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 5-14

5.2.4 Effect of Impurities 5-16

5.2.5 Effects of Current Density5-19

5.2.6 Effects of Cell Life5-20

5.3 SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR PAFC5-21

5.4 REFERENCES5-22

6. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL 6-1

6.1 CELL COMPONENTS6-4

6.1.1 State-of-the-Art Componments 6-4

6.1.2 Development Components 6-9

6.2 PERFORMANCE 6-13

6.2.1 Effect of Pressure 6-15

6.2.2 Effect of Temperature 6-19

6.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 6-21

6.2.4 Effect of Impurities 6-25

6.2.5 Effects of Current Density6-30

6.2.6 Effects of Cell Life6-30

6.2.7 Internal Reforming 6-30

6.3 SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR MCFC6-34

6.4 REFERENCES6-38



7. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS7-1

7.1 CELL COMPONENTS7-2

7.1.1 Electrolyte Materials 7-2

7.1.2 Anode Materials 7-3

7.1.3 Cathode Materials 7-5

7.1.4 Interconnect Materials7-6

7.1.5 Seal Materials7-9

7.2 CELL AND STACK DESIGNS 7-13

7.2.1 Tubular SOFC 7-13

7.2.1.1 Performance 7-20

7.2.2 Planar SOFC7-31

7.2.2.1 Single Cell Performance7-35

7.2.2.2 Stack Performance7-39

7.2.3 Stack Scale-Up7-41

7.3 SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS 7-45

7.4 REFERENCES7-45

8. FUEL CELL SYSTEMS8-1

8.1 SYSTEM PROCESSES 8-2

8.1.1 Fuel Processing 8-2

8.2 POWER CONDITIONING8-27

8.2.1 Introduction to Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Systems8-28

8.2.2 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Supplying a Dedicated Load [2,3,48-29

8.2.3 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Supplying Backup Power to a Load

Connected to a Local Utility 8-34

8.2.4 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Supplying a Load Operating in Parallel

With the Local Utility (Utility Interactive) 8-37

8.2.5 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Connecting Directly to the Local Utility8-37

8.2.6 Power Conditioners for Automotive Fuel Cells 8-39

8.2.7 Power Conversion Architecture for a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Interfaced

With a Local Utility8-41

8.2.8 Fuel Cell Ripple Current 8-43

8.2.9 System Issues: Power Conversion Cost and Size8-44

8.2.10 REFERENCES (Sections 8.1 and 8.2) 8-45

8.3 SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION8-46

8.3.1 Pressure 8-46

8.3.2 Temperature 8-48

8.3.3 Utilization8-49

8.3.4 Heat Recovery8-50

8.3.5 Miscellaneous8-51

8.3.6 Concluding Remarks on System Optimization 8-51

8.4 FUEL CELL SYSTEM DESIGNS8-52

8.4.1 Natural Gas Fueled PEFC System 8-52

8.4.2 Natural Gas Fueled PAFC System 8-53

8.4.3 Natural Gas Fueled Internally Reformed MCFC System8-56

8.4.4 Natural Gas Fueled Pressurized SOFC System8-58

8.4.5 Natural Gas Fueled Multi-Stage Solid State Power Plant System 8-62

8.4.6 Coal Fueled SOFC System8-66

8.4.7 Power Generation by Combined Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine System 8-70

8.4.8 Heat and Fuel Recovery Cycles 8-70



8.5 FUEL CELL NETWORKS 8-82

8.5.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Networks: Principles, Analysis and

Performance 8-82

8.5.2 MCFC Network8-86

8.5.3 Recycle Scheme 8-86

8.5.4 Reactant Conditioning Between Stacks in Series8-86

8.5.5 Higher Total Reactant Utilization 8-87

8.5.6 Disadvantages of MCFC Networks8-88

8.5.7 Comparison of Performance8-88

8.5.8 Conclusions 8-89

8.6 HYBRIDS8-89

8.6.1 Technology8-89

8.6.2 Projects8-92

8.6.3 World’s First Hybrid Project8-93

8.6.4 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) 8-93

8.7 FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEMS8-96

8.7.1 System Performance Requirements8-97

8.7.2 Technology Status8-98

8.7.3 System Configuration and Technology Issues 8-99

8.7.4 System Cost Considerations8-102

8.7.5 SOFC System Cost Structure 8-103

8.7.6 Outlook and Conclusions 8-104

8.8 REFERENCES8-104

9. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS9-1

9.1 UNIT OPERATIONS9-1

9.1.1 Fuel Cell Calculations 9-1

9.1.2 Fuel Processing Calculations 9-13

9.1.3 Power Conditioners9-16

9.1.4 Others 9-16

9.2 SYSTEM ISSUES9-16

9.2.1 Efficiency Calculations 9-17

9.2.2 Thermodynamic Considerations9-19

9.3 SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS9-22

9.4 COST CALCULATIONS9-25

9.4.1 Cost of Electricity9-25

9.4.2 Capital Cost Development 9-26

9.5 COMMON CONVERSION FACTORS 9-27

9.6 AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN CALCULATIONS9-28

9.7 REFERENCES9-29

10. APPENDIX 10-1

10.1 EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS 10-1

10.2 CONTAMINANTS FROM COAL GASIFICATION10-2

10.3 SELECTED MAJOR FUEL CELL REFERENCES, 1993 TO PRESENT10-4

10.4 LIST OF SYMBOLS10-10

10.5 FUEL CELL RELATED CODES AND STANDARDS10-14

10.5.1 Introduction10-14

10.5.2 Organizations 10-15

10.5.3 Codes & Standards10-16

10.5.4 Codes and Standards for Fuel Cell Manufacturers10-17



10.5.5 Codes and Standards for the Installation of Fuel Cells 10-19

10.5.6 Codes and Standards for Fuel Cell Vehicles 10-19

10.5.7 Application Permits10-19

10.5.8 References 10-21

10.6 FUEL CELL FIELD SITE DATA10-21

10.6.1 Worldwide Sites 10-21

10.6.2 DoD Field Sites 10-24

10.6.3 IFC Field Units10-24

10.6.4 FuelCell Energy10-24

10.6.5 Siemens Westinghouse10-24

10.7 HYDROGEN10-31

10.7.1 Introduction10-31

10.7.2 Hydrogen Production 10-32

10.7.3 DOE’s Hydrogen Research 10-34

10.7.4 Hydrogen Storage10-35

10.7.5 Barriers10-36

10.8 THE OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY WORK IN FUEL

CELLS 10-36

10.9 RARE EARTH MINERALS 10-38

10.9.1 Introduction10-38

10.9.2 Outlook10-40

10.10 REFERENCES10-41

11. INDEX11-1




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