Control Valve Handbook


Control Valve Handbook






Download: pdf1



File : pdf, 2.76 MB, 295 pages



TOC



1. Introduction to Control Valves1

What Is A Control Valve?

Process Control Terminology

Sliding-Stem Control Valve Terminology

Rotary-Shaft Control Valve Terminology

Control Valve Functions and Characteristics Terminology

Other Process Control Terminology



2. Control Valve Performance

Process Variability

Economic Results

Summary



3. Valve and Actuator Types

Control Valves

Globe Valves

Rotary Valves

Control Valve End Connections

Valve Body Bonnets

Control Valve Packing

Characterization of Cage-Guided Valve Bodies

Valve Plug Guiding

Restricted-Capacity Control Valve Trim

Actuators60



4. Control Valve Accessories65

Positioners

Other Control Valve Accessories

Limit Switches

Solenoid Valve Manifold

Supply Pressure Regulator

Pneumatic Lock-Up Systems

Fail-Safe Systems for Piston Actuators

Electro-Pneumatic Transducers

Electro-Pneumatic Valve Positioners

PC Diagnostic Software



5. Control Valve Selection

Valve Body Materials

Designations for the High Nickel Alloys

Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Standard Class

ASTM A216 Grade WCC Valves

Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM A216 Cast Iron, ASTM B61 and B62 Cast Bronze Valves

Class Designation and PN Numbers

Face–to Face Dimensions

Wear & Galling Resistance Chart Of Material Combinations

Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications

Class VI Maximum Seat Leakage Allowable

Typical Valve Trim Material Temperature Limits

Service Temperature Limitations for Elastomers

Ambient Temperature Corrosion Information

Elastomer Information Fluid Compatibility

Control Valve Flow Characteristics

Selection of Flow Characteristic

Valve Sizing

Sizing Valves for Liquids

Abbreviations and Terminology

Equation Constants

Determining Fp, the Piping Geometry Factor

Determining qmax (the Maximum Flow Rate) or Pmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop)

Liquid Sizing Sample Problem

Sizing Valves for Compressible Fluids

Determining xTP, the Pressure Drop Ratio Factor

Representative Sizing Coefficients for Single–Ported

Globe Style Valve Bodies

Representative Sizing Coefficients for Rotary Shaft Valves

Actuator Sizing

Rotary Actuator Sizing

Typical Rotary Shaft Valve Torque Factors

V–Notch Ball Valve with Composition Seal

High Performance Butterfly Valve with Composition Seal

Non-Destructive Test Procedures

Cavitation and Flashing

Choked Flow Causes Flashing and Cavitation

Valve Selection for Flashing Service, Valve Selection for Cavitation Service

Noise Prediction, Noise Control, Noise Summary

Packing Selection Guidelines



6. Special Control Valves

High Capacity Control Valves

Low Flow Control Valves

High-Temperature Control Valves

Cryogenic Service Valves

Customized Characteristics and Noise Abatement Trims

Control Valves for Nuclear Service in the USA

Valves Subject to Sulfide Stress Cracking



7. Steam Conditioning Valves

Understanding Desuperheating

Typical Desuperheater Designs

Understanding Steam Conditioning Valves

Steam Conditioning Valve Designs

Feedforward Design

Manifold Design

Pressure-Reduction-Only Design

Understanding Turbine Bypass Systems

Turbine Bypass System Components



8. Installation and Maintenance

Proper Storage and Protection

Proper Installation Techniques

Control Valve Maintenance

Reactive Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance

Predictive Maintenance

Actuator Diaphragm

Stem Packing

Seat Rings

Bench Set



9. Standards and Approvals

Control Valve Standards

American Petroleum Institute (API)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Fluid Controls Institute (FCI)

Instrument Society of America (ISA)

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

International Standards Organization (ISO)

Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)

NACE International

Product Approvals for Hazardous (Classified) Locations

North American Approvals

Approval Agencies

Types of Protection

Nomenclature

Hazardous Location Classification

Temperature Code

NEMA Enclosure Rating

CSA Enclosure Ratings

Intrinsically Safe Apparatus

Loop Schematic (Control Drawing)

Comparison of Protection Techniques

Intrinsically Safe Technique

Dust Ignition–proof Technique

Non–Incendive Technique

European and Asia/Pacific Approvals



10. Engineering Data

Standard Specifications For Valve Materials

Valve Materials Properties for Pressure–Containing Components

Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons

Specific Heat Ratio (K)

Physical Constants of Various Fluids

Refrigerant 717 (Ammonia)

Properties of Water,Saturated Steam,Superheated Steam

Velocity of Liquids in Pipe

Flow of Water Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Flow of Air Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Calculations for Pipe Other than Schedule 40



11. Pipe Data.

Pipe Engagement

Carbon and Alloy Steel – Stainless Steel

American Pipe Flange Dimensions – Diameter of Bolt CircleInches

American Pipe Flange Dimensions – Number of Stud Bolts and Diameter in Inches

American Pipe Flange Dimensions – Flange Diameter–Inches

DIN Standards

American Pipe Flange Dimensions – Flange Thickness for Flange Fittings

DIN Cast Steel Flange Standard



12. Conversions and Equivalents

Length Equivalents

Whole Inch–Millimeter Equivalents

Fractional Inches To Millimeters

Additional Fractional/Decimal Inch–Millimeter Equivalents

Area Equivalents

Volume Equivalents

Volume Rate Equivalents

Mass Conversion—Pounds to Kilograms

Pressure Equivalents

Pressure Conversion—Pounds per Square Inch to Bar

Temperature Conversion Formulas

Temperature Conversions

A.P.I. and Baumé Gravity Tables and Weight Factors

Equivalent Volume and Weight Flow Rates of Compressible Fluids

Viscosity Conversion Nomograph

Other Useful Conversions

Metric Prefixes and Symbols




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