Fuel cell handbook


Fuel cell handbook



 



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TOC



1. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW1-1

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 UNIT CELLS 1-2

1.2.1 Basic Structure 1-2

1.2.2 Critical Functions of Cell Components

1.3 FUEL CELL STACKING1-4

1.3.1 Planar-Bipolar Stacking 1-4

1.3.2 Stacks with Tubular Cells 1-5

1.4 FUEL CELL SYSTEMS1-5

1.5 FUEL CELL TYPES1-7

1.5.1 Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC1-9

1.5.2 Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC1-10

1.5.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC1-10

1.5.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 1-11

1.5.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 1-12

1.6 CHARACTERISTICS1-12

1.7 ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES1-14

1.8 APPLICATIONS, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND STATUS 1-15

1.8.1 Stationary Electric Power1-15

1.8.2 Distributed Generation 1-20

1.8.3 Vehicle Motive Power1-22

1.8.4 Space and Other Closed Environment Power 1-23

1.8.5 Auxiliary Power Systems 1-23

1.8.6 Derivative Applications1-32

1.9 REFERENCES1-32

2. FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE2-1

2.1 THE ROLE OF GIBBS FREE ENERGY AND NERNST POTENTIAL2-1

2.2 IDEAL PERFORMANCE 2-4

2.3 CELL ENERGY BALANCE2-7

2.4 CELL EFFICIENCY 2-7

2.5 ACTUAL PERFORMANCE2-10

2.6 FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE VARIABLES2-18

2.7 MATHEMATICAL MODELS2-24

2.7.1 Value-in-Use Models 2-26

2.7.2 Application Models2-27

2.7.3 Thermodynamic System Models2-27

2.7.4 3-D Cell / Stack Models 2-29

2.7.5 1-D Cell Models2-31

2.7.6 Electrode Models2-32

2.8 REFERENCES2-33

3. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS 3-1

3.1 CELL COMPONENTS3-1

3.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 3-2

3.1.2 Component Development3-11

3.2 PERFORMANCE 3-14



3.3 PEFC SYSTEMS3-16

3.3.1 Direct Hydrogen PEFC Systems 3-16

3.3.2 Reformer-Based PEFC Systems3-17

3.3.3 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems 3-19

3.4 PEFC APPLICATIONS3-21

3.4.1 Transportation Applications3-21

3.4.2 Stationary Applications 3-22

3.5 REFERENCES3-22

4. ALKALINE FUEL CELL4-1

4.1 CELL COMPONENTS4-5

4.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 4-5

4.1.2 Development Components 4-6

4.2 PERFORMANCE 4-7

4.2.1 Effect of Pressure 4-8

4.2.2 Effect of Temperature 4-9

4.2.3 Effect of Impurities -11

4.2.4 Effects of Current Density4-12

4.2.5 Effects of Cell Life4-14

4.3 SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR AFC4-14

4.4 REFERENCES4-16

5. PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL 5-1

5.1 CELL COMPONENTS5-2

5.1.1 State-of-the-Art Components 5-2

5.1.2 Development Components 5-6

5.2 PERFORMANCE 5-11

5.2.1 Effect of Pressure 5-12

5.2.2 Effect of Temperature 5-13

5.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 5-14

5.2.4 Effect of Impurities 5-16

5.2.5 Effects of Current Density5-19

5.2.6 Effects of Cell Life5-20

5.3 SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR PAFC5-21

5.4 REFERENCES5-22

6. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL 6-1

6.1 CELL COMPONENTS6-4

6.1.1 State-of-the-Art Componments 6-4

6.1.2 Development Components 6-9

6.2 PERFORMANCE 6-13

6.2.1 Effect of Pressure 6-15

6.2.2 Effect of Temperature 6-19

6.2.3 Effect of Reactant Gas Composition and Utilization 6-21

6.2.4 Effect of Impurities 6-25

6.2.5 Effects of Current Density6-30

6.2.6 Effects of Cell Life6-30

6.2.7 Internal Reforming 6-30

6.3 SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR MCFC6-34

6.4 REFERENCES6-38



7. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS7-1

7.1 CELL COMPONENTS7-2

7.1.1 Electrolyte Materials 7-2

7.1.2 Anode Materials 7-3

7.1.3 Cathode Materials 7-5

7.1.4 Interconnect Materials7-6

7.1.5 Seal Materials7-9

7.2 CELL AND STACK DESIGNS 7-13

7.2.1 Tubular SOFC 7-13

7.2.1.1 Performance 7-20

7.2.2 Planar SOFC7-31

7.2.2.1 Single Cell Performance7-35

7.2.2.2 Stack Performance7-39

7.2.3 Stack Scale-Up7-41

7.3 SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS 7-45

7.4 REFERENCES7-45

8. FUEL CELL SYSTEMS8-1

8.1 SYSTEM PROCESSES 8-2

8.1.1 Fuel Processing 8-2

8.2 POWER CONDITIONING8-27

8.2.1 Introduction to Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Systems8-28

8.2.2 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Supplying a Dedicated Load [2,3,48-29

8.2.3 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Supplying Backup Power to a Load

Connected to a Local Utility 8-34

8.2.4 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Supplying a Load Operating in Parallel

With the Local Utility (Utility Interactive) 8-37

8.2.5 Fuel Cell Power Conversion for Connecting Directly to the Local Utility8-37

8.2.6 Power Conditioners for Automotive Fuel Cells 8-39

8.2.7 Power Conversion Architecture for a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Interfaced

With a Local Utility8-41

8.2.8 Fuel Cell Ripple Current 8-43

8.2.9 System Issues: Power Conversion Cost and Size8-44

8.2.10 REFERENCES (Sections 8.1 and 8.2) 8-45

8.3 SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION8-46

8.3.1 Pressure 8-46

8.3.2 Temperature 8-48

8.3.3 Utilization8-49

8.3.4 Heat Recovery8-50

8.3.5 Miscellaneous8-51

8.3.6 Concluding Remarks on System Optimization 8-51

8.4 FUEL CELL SYSTEM DESIGNS8-52

8.4.1 Natural Gas Fueled PEFC System 8-52

8.4.2 Natural Gas Fueled PAFC System 8-53

8.4.3 Natural Gas Fueled Internally Reformed MCFC System8-56

8.4.4 Natural Gas Fueled Pressurized SOFC System8-58

8.4.5 Natural Gas Fueled Multi-Stage Solid State Power Plant System 8-62

8.4.6 Coal Fueled SOFC System8-66

8.4.7 Power Generation by Combined Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine System 8-70

8.4.8 Heat and Fuel Recovery Cycles 8-70



8.5 FUEL CELL NETWORKS 8-82

8.5.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Networks: Principles, Analysis and

Performance 8-82

8.5.2 MCFC Network8-86

8.5.3 Recycle Scheme 8-86

8.5.4 Reactant Conditioning Between Stacks in Series8-86

8.5.5 Higher Total Reactant Utilization 8-87

8.5.6 Disadvantages of MCFC Networks8-88

8.5.7 Comparison of Performance8-88

8.5.8 Conclusions 8-89

8.6 HYBRIDS8-89

8.6.1 Technology8-89

8.6.2 Projects8-92

8.6.3 World’s First Hybrid Project8-93

8.6.4 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) 8-93

8.7 FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEMS8-96

8.7.1 System Performance Requirements8-97

8.7.2 Technology Status8-98

8.7.3 System Configuration and Technology Issues 8-99

8.7.4 System Cost Considerations8-102

8.7.5 SOFC System Cost Structure 8-103

8.7.6 Outlook and Conclusions 8-104

8.8 REFERENCES8-104

9. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS9-1

9.1 UNIT OPERATIONS9-1

9.1.1 Fuel Cell Calculations 9-1

9.1.2 Fuel Processing Calculations 9-13

9.1.3 Power Conditioners9-16

9.1.4 Others 9-16

9.2 SYSTEM ISSUES9-16

9.2.1 Efficiency Calculations 9-17

9.2.2 Thermodynamic Considerations9-19

9.3 SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS9-22

9.4 COST CALCULATIONS9-25

9.4.1 Cost of Electricity9-25

9.4.2 Capital Cost Development 9-26

9.5 COMMON CONVERSION FACTORS 9-27

9.6 AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN CALCULATIONS9-28

9.7 REFERENCES9-29

10. APPENDIX 10-1

10.1 EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS 10-1

10.2 CONTAMINANTS FROM COAL GASIFICATION10-2

10.3 SELECTED MAJOR FUEL CELL REFERENCES, 1993 TO PRESENT10-4

10.4 LIST OF SYMBOLS10-10

10.5 FUEL CELL RELATED CODES AND STANDARDS10-14

10.5.1 Introduction10-14

10.5.2 Organizations 10-15

10.5.3 Codes & Standards10-16

10.5.4 Codes and Standards for Fuel Cell Manufacturers10-17



10.5.5 Codes and Standards for the Installation of Fuel Cells 10-19

10.5.6 Codes and Standards for Fuel Cell Vehicles 10-19

10.5.7 Application Permits10-19

10.5.8 References 10-21

10.6 FUEL CELL FIELD SITE DATA10-21

10.6.1 Worldwide Sites 10-21

10.6.2 DoD Field Sites 10-24

10.6.3 IFC Field Units10-24

10.6.4 FuelCell Energy10-24

10.6.5 Siemens Westinghouse10-24

10.7 HYDROGEN10-31

10.7.1 Introduction10-31

10.7.2 Hydrogen Production 10-32

10.7.3 DOE’s Hydrogen Research 10-34

10.7.4 Hydrogen Storage10-35

10.7.5 Barriers10-36

10.8 THE OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY WORK IN FUEL

CELLS 10-36

10.9 RARE EARTH MINERALS 10-38

10.9.1 Introduction10-38

10.9.2 Outlook10-40

10.10 REFERENCES10-41

11. INDEX11-1




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