Handbook of instrumentation and controls


Handbook of instrumentation and controls



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MODUL 1 TEMPERATUR DETECTOR



RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs)

Temperature

RTD Construction

Summary

THERMOCOUPLES

Thermocouple Construction

Thermocouple Operation

Summary

FUNCTIONAL USES OF TEMPERATURE DETECTORS

Functions of Temperature Detectors

Detector Problems

Environmental Concerns .

Summary

TEMPERATURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY

Bridge Circuit Construction

Bridge Circuit Operation

Temperature Detection Circuit

Temperature Compensation

Summary



MODUL 2 PRESSURE DETECTORS

PRESSURE DETECTORS

Bellows-Type Detectors

Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors

Summary

PRESSURE DETECTOR FUNCTIONAL USES

Pressure Detector Functions

Detector Failure

Environmental Concerns

Summary

PRESSURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY

Resistance-Type Transducers

Inductance-Type Transducers

Capacitive-Type Transducers

Detection Circuitry

Summary



MODUL 3 LEVEL DETECTORS



LEVEL DETECTORS

Gauge Glass

Ball Float

Chain Float

Magnetic Bond Method

Conductivity Probe Method

Differential Pressure Level Detectors

Summary

DENSITY COMPENSATION

Specific Volume

Reference Leg Temperature Considerations

Pressurizer Level Instruments

Steam Generator Level Instrument

Summary

LEVEL DETECTION CIRCUITRY

Remote Indication

Environmental Concerns

Summary



MODUL 4 FLOW DETECTORS



HEAD FLOW METERS

Orifice Plate

Venturi Tube

Dall Flow Tube

Pitot Tube .

Summary

OTHER FLOW METERS

Area Flow Meter

Displacement Meter

Hot-Wire Anemometer

Electromagnetic Flowmeter

Ultrasonic Flow Equipment

Summary

STEAM FLOW DETECTION

Summary

FLOW CIRCUITRY

Circuitry .

Use of Flow Indication

Environmental Concerns

Summary



MODUL 5 POSITION INDICATORS



SYNCHRO EQUIPMENT

Synchro Equipment

Summary

SWITCHES

Limit Switches

Reed Switches

Summary

VARIABLE OUTPUT DEVICES

Potentiometer

Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)

Summary

POSITION INDICATION CIRCUITRY

Environmental Concerns

Summary



MODUL 6 RADIATION DETECTORS

OBJECTIVES

RADIATION DETECTION TERMINOLOGY

Electron-Ion Pair

Specific Ionization

Stopping Power

Summary

RADIATION TYPES

Alpha Particle

Beta Particle

Gamma Ray

Neutron .

Summary

GAS-FILLED DETECTOR

Summary

DETECTOR VOLTAGE

Applied Voltage

Summary

PROPORTIONAL COUNTER

Summary



MODUL 7 PROCESS CONTROLS



PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

Introduction

Terminology

Automatic Control System

Functions of Automatic Control

Elements of Automatic Control

Feedback Control

Summary

CONTROL LOOP DIAGRAMS .

Terminology

Feedback Control System Block Diagram

Process Time Lags

Stability of Automatic Control Systems

Summary

TWO POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

Controllers

Two Position Controller

Example of Two Position Control

Modes of Automatic Control .

Summary

PROPORTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

Control Mode

Proportional Band

Example of a Proportional Process Control System

Summary

RESET (INTEGRAL) CONTROL SYSTEMS

Reset Control (Integral)

Definition of Integral Control

Example of an Integral Flow Control System

Properties of Integral Control

Summary

PROPORTIONAL PLUS RESET CONTROL SYSTEMS

Proportional Plus Reset

Example of Proportional Plus Reset Control

Reset Windup

Summary

PROPORTIONAL PLUS RATE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Proportional-Derivative

Definition of Derivative Control

Example of Proportional Plus Rate Control

Applications

Summary

PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Proportional-Integral-Derivative

Proportional Plus Reset Plus Rate Controller Actions

Summary

CONTROLLERS

Controllers

Control Stations

Self-Balancing Control Stations

Summary

VALVE ACTUATORS

Actuators

Pneumatic Actuators

Hydraulic Actuators

Electric Solenoid Actuators

Electric Motor Actuators

Summary

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