Handbook of instrumentation and controls

Handbook of instrumentation and controls

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MODUL 1 TEMPERATUR DETECTOR

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs)
Temperature
RTD Construction
Summary
THERMOCOUPLES
Thermocouple Construction
Thermocouple Operation
Summary

FUNCTIONAL USES OF TEMPERATURE DETECTORS

Functions of Temperature Detectors
Detector Problems
Environmental Concerns .
Summary

TEMPERATURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Bridge Circuit Construction
Bridge Circuit Operation
Temperature Detection Circuit
Temperature Compensation
Summary


MODUL 2 PRESSURE DETECTORS



PRESSURE DETECTORS
Bellows-Type Detectors
Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors
Summary
PRESSURE DETECTOR FUNCTIONAL USES
Pressure Detector Functions
Detector Failure
Environmental Concerns
Summary
PRESSURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Resistance-Type Transducers
Inductance-Type Transducers
Capacitive-Type Transducers
Detection Circuitry
Summary



MODUL 3 LEVEL DETECTORS


LEVEL DETECTORS
Gauge Glass
Ball Float
Chain Float

Magnetic Bond Method
Conductivity Probe Method
Differential Pressure Level Detectors
Summary
DENSITY COMPENSATION
Specific Volume
Reference Leg Temperature Considerations
Pressurizer Level Instruments
Steam Generator Level Instrument
Summary
LEVEL DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Remote Indication
Environmental Concerns
Summary


MODUL 4 FLOW DETECTORS
HEAD FLOW METERS
Orifice Plate
Venturi Tube
Dall Flow Tube
Pitot Tube .
Summary
OTHER FLOW METERS
Area Flow Meter
Displacement Meter
Hot-Wire Anemometer
Electromagnetic Flowmeter
Ultrasonic Flow Equipment
Summary

STEAM FLOW DETECTION
Summary
FLOW CIRCUITRY
Circuitry .
Use of Flow Indication
Environmental Concerns
Summary


MODUL 5 POSITION INDICATORS
SYNCHRO EQUIPMENT
Synchro Equipment
Summary
SWITCHES
Limit Switches
Reed Switches
Summary
VARIABLE OUTPUT DEVICES
Potentiometer
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
Summary
POSITION INDICATION CIRCUITRY
Environmental Concerns
Summary


MODUL 6 RADIATION DETECTORS
OBJECTIVES
RADIATION DETECTION TERMINOLOGY
Electron-Ion Pair
Specific Ionization
Stopping Power
Summary
RADIATION TYPES
Alpha Particle
Beta Particle
Gamma Ray
Neutron .
Summary
GAS-FILLED DETECTOR
Summary
DETECTOR VOLTAGE
Applied Voltage
Summary
PROPORTIONAL COUNTER
Summary


MODUL 7 PROCESS CONTROLS
PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
Introduction
Terminology
Automatic Control System
Functions of Automatic Control
Elements of Automatic Control
Feedback Control
Summary
CONTROL LOOP DIAGRAMS .
Terminology
Feedback Control System Block Diagram
Process Time Lags
Stability of Automatic Control Systems
Summary
TWO POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS
Controllers
Two Position Controller
Example of Two Position Control
Modes of Automatic Control .
Summary
PROPORTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Mode
Proportional Band
Example of a Proportional Process Control System
Summary
RESET (INTEGRAL) CONTROL SYSTEMS
Reset Control (Integral)
Definition of Integral Control
Example of an Integral Flow Control System
Properties of Integral Control
Summary
PROPORTIONAL PLUS RESET CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional Plus Reset
Example of Proportional Plus Reset Control
Reset Windup
Summary
PROPORTIONAL PLUS RATE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional-Derivative
Definition of Derivative Control
Example of Proportional Plus Rate Control
Applications
Summary
PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional-Integral-Derivative
Proportional Plus Reset Plus Rate Controller Actions
Summary
CONTROLLERS
Controllers
Control Stations
Self-Balancing Control Stations
Summary
VALVE ACTUATORS
Actuators
Pneumatic Actuators
Hydraulic Actuators
Electric Solenoid Actuators
Electric Motor Actuators
Summary


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