Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

TOC
2. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.1.1 Ladder Logic
2.1.2 Programming
2.1.3 PLC Connections
2.1.4 Ladder Logic Inputs
2.1.5 Ladder Logic Outputs
2.2 A CASE STUDY
2.3 SUMMARY
2.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
2.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
2.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
3. PLC HARDWARE
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
3.2.1 Inputs
3.2.2 Output Modules
3.3 RELAYS
3.4 A CASE STUDY
3.5 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS
3.5.1 JIC Wiring Symbols
3.6 SUMMARY
3.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
3.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
3.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
4. LOGICAL SENSORS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 SENSOR WIRING
4.2.1 Switches
4.2.2 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
4.2.3 Sinking/Sourcing
4.2.4 Solid State Relays
4.3 PRESENCE DETECTION
4.3.1 Contact Switches
4.3.2 Reed Switches
4.3.3 Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors
4.3.4 Capacitive Sensors
4.3.5 Inductive Sensors
4.3.6 Ultrasonic
4.3.7 Hall Effect
4.3.8 Fluid Flow
4.4 SUMMARY
4.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
4.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
4.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
5. LOGICAL ACTUATORS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 SOLENOIDS
5.3 VALVES
5.4 CYLINDERS
5.5 HYDRAULICS
5.6 PNEUMATICS
5.7 MOTORS
5.8 COMPUTERS
5.9 OTHERS
5.10 SUMMARY
5.11 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
5.12 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
5.13 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
6. BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
6.3 LOGIC DESIGN
6.3.1 Boolean Algebra Techniques
6.4 COMMON LOGIC FORMS
6.4.1 Complex Gate Forms
6.4.2 Multiplexers
6.5 SIMPLE DESIGN CASES
6.5.1 Basic Logic Functions
6.5.2 Car Safety System
6.5.3 Motor Forward/Reverse
6.5.4 A Burglar Alarm
6.6 SUMMARY
6.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
6.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
6.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
7. KARNAUGHMAPS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 SUMMARY
7.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
7.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
7.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
8. PLC OPERATION
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 OPERATION SEQUENCE
8.2.1 The Input and Output Scans
8.2.2 The Logic Scan
8.3 PLC STATUS
8.4 MEMORY TYPES
8.5 SOFTWARE BASED PLCS
8.6 SUMMARY
8.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
8.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
8.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
9. LATCHES, TIMERS, COUNTERS AND MORE
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 LATCHES
9.3 TIMERS
9.4 COUNTERS
9.5 MASTER CONTROL RELAYS (MCRs)
9.6 INTERNAL RELAYS
9.7 DESIGN CASES
9.7.1 Basic Counters And Timers
9.7.2 More Timers And Counters
9.7.3 Deadman Switch
9.7.4 Conveyor
9.7.5 Accept/Reject Sorting
9.7.6 Shear Press
9.8 SUMMARY
9.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
9.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
9.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
10. STRUCTURED LOGIC DESIGN
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 PROCESS SEQUENCE BITS
10.3 TIMING DIAGRAMS
10.4 DESIGN CASES
10.5 SUMMARY
10.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
10.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
10.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
11. FLOWCHART BASED DESIGN
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 BLOCK LOGIC
11.3 SEQUENCE BITS
11.4 SUMMARY
11.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
11.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
11.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
12. STATE BASED DESIGN
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.1.1 State Diagram Example
12.1.2 Conversion to Ladder Logic
Block Logic Conversion
State Equations
State-Transition Equations
12.2 SUMMARY
12.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
12.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
12.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
13. NUMBERS AND DATA
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 NUMERICAL VALUES
13.2.1 Binary
Boolean Operations
Binary Mathematics
13.2.2 Other Base Number Systems
13.2.3 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)
13.3 DATA CHARACTERIZATION
13.3.1 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
13.3.2 Parity
13.3.3 Checksums
13.3.4 Gray Code
13.4 SUMMARY
13.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
13.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
13.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
14. PLCMEMORY
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 MEMORY ADDRESSES
14.3 PROGRAM FILES
14.4 DATA FILES
14.4.1 User Bit Memory
14.4.2 Timer Counter Memory
14.4.3 PLC Status Bits (for PLC-5s and Micrologix)
14.4.4 User Function Control Memory
14.4.5 Integer Memory
14.4.6 Floating Point Memory
14.5 SUMMARY
14.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
14.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
14.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
15. LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS
15.1 INTRODUCTION
15.2 DATA HANDLING
15.2.1 Move Functions
15.2.2 Mathematical Functions
15.2.3 Conversions
15.2.4 Array Data Functions
Statistics
Block Operations
15.3 LOGICAL FUNCTIONS
15.3.1 Comparison of Values
15.3.2 Boolean Functions
15.4 DESIGN CASES
15.4.1 Simple Calculation
15.4.2 For-Next
15.4.3 Series Calculation
15.4.4 Flashing Lights
15.5 SUMMARY
15.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
15.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
15.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
16. ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 LIST FUNCTIONS
16.2.1 Shift Registers
16.2.2 Stacks
16.2.3 Sequencers
16.3 PROGRAM CONTROL
16.3.1 Branching and Looping
16.3.2 Fault Detection and Interrupts
16.4 INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS
16.4.1 Immediate I/O Instructions
16.4.2 Block Transfer Functions
16.5 DESIGN TECHNIQUES
16.5.1 State Diagrams
16.6 DESIGN CASES
16.6.1 If-Then
16.6.2 Traffic Light
16.7 SUMMARY
16.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
16.9 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
16.10 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
17. OPEN CONTROLLERS
17.1 INTRODUCTION
17.2 IEC 61131
17.3 OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS
17.4 SUMMARY
17.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
17.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
17.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
18. INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING
18.1 INTRODUCTION
18.2 THE IEC 61131 VERSION
18.3 THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION
18.4 SUMMARY
18.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
18.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
18.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
19. STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING
19.1 INTRODUCTION
19.2 THE LANGUAGE
19.3 SUMMARY
19.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
19.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
19.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
20. SEQUENTIAL FUNCTION CHARTS
20.1 INTRODUCTION
20.2 A COMPARISON OF METHODS
20.3 SUMMARY
20.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
20.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
20.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
21. FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING
21.1 INTRODUCTION
21.2 CREATING FUNCTION BLOCKS
21.3 DESIGN CASE
21.4 SUMMARY
21.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
21.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
21.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
22. ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
22.1 INTRODUCTION
22.2 ANALOG INPUTS
22.2.1 Analog Inputs With a PLC
22.3 ANALOG OUTPUTS
22.3.1 Analog Outputs With A PLC
22.3.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Outputs
22.3.3 Shielding
22.4 DESIGN CASES
22.4.1 Process Monitor
22.5 SUMMARY
22.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
22.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
22.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
23. CONTINUOUS SENSORS
23.1 INTRODUCTION
23.2 INDUSTRIAL SENSORS
23.2.1 Angular Displacement
Potentiometers
23.2.2 Encoders
Tachometers
23.2.3 Linear Position
Potentiometers
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
Moire Fringes
Accelerometers
23.2.4 Forces and Moments
Strain Gages
Piezoelectric
23.2.5 Liquids and Gases
Pressure
Venturi Valves
Coriolis Flow Meter
Magnetic Flow Meter
Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Vortex Flow Meter
Positive Displacement Meters
Pitot Tubes
23.2.6 Temperature
Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
Thermocouples
Thermistors
Other Sensors
23.2.7 Light
Light Dependant Resistors (LDR)
23.2.8 Chemical
pH
Conductivity
23.2.9 Others
23.3 INPUT ISSUES
23.4 SENSOR GLOSSARY
23.5 SUMMARY
23.6 REFERENCES
23.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
23.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
23.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
24. CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS
24.1 INTRODUCTION
24.2 ELECTRIC MOTORS
24.2.1 Basic Brushed DC Motors
24.2.2 AC Motors
24.2.3 Brushless DC Motors
24.2.4 Stepper Motors
24.2.5 Wound Field Motors
24.3 HYDRAULICS
24.4 OTHER SYSTEMS
24.5 SUMMARY
24.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
24.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
24.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
25. CONTINUOUS CONTROL
25.1 INTRODUCTION
25.2 CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
25.3 CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
25.3.1 Block Diagrams
25.3.2 Feedback Control Systems
25.3.3 Proportional Controllers
25.3.4 PID Control Systems
25.4 DESIGN CASES
25.4.1 Oven Temperature Control
25.4.2 Water Tank Level Control
25.5 SUMMARY
25.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
25.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
25.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
26. FUZZY LOGIC
26.1 INTRODUCTION
26.2 COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS
26.3 REFERENCES
26.4 SUMMARY
26.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
26.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
26.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
27. SERIAL COMMUNICATION
27.1 INTRODUCTION
27.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
27.2.1 RS-232
ASCII Functions
27.3 PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS
27.4 DESIGN CASES
27.4.1 PLC Interface To a Robot
27.5 SUMMARY
27.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
27.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
27.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
28. NETWORKING
28.1 INTRODUCTION
28.1.1 Topology
28.1.2 OSI Network Model
28.1.3 Networking Hardware
28.1.4 Control Network Issues
28.2 NETWORK STANDARDS
28.2.1 Devicenet
28.2.2 CANbus
28.2.3 Controlnet
28.2.4 Ethernet
28.2.5 Profibus
28.2.6 Sercos
28.3 PROPRIETARY NETWORKS
28.3.1 Data Highway
28.4 NETWORK COMPARISONS
28.5 DESIGN CASES
28.5.1 Devicenet
28.6 SUMMARY
28.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
28.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
28.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
29. INTERNET
29.1 INTRODUCTION
29.1.1 Computer Addresses
IPV6
29.1.2 Phone Lines
29.1.3 Mail Transfer Protocols
29.1.4 FTP - File Transfer Protocol
29.1.5 HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
29.1.6 Novell
29.1.7 Security
Firewall
IP Masquerading
29.1.8 HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language
29.1.9 URLs
29.1.10 Encryption
29.1.11 Compression
29.1.12 Clients and Servers
29.1.13 Java
29.1.14 Javascript
29.1.15 CGI
29.1.16 ActiveX
29.1.17 Graphics
29.2 DESIGN CASES
29.2.1 Remote Monitoring System
29.3 SUMMARY
29.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
29.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
29.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
30. HUMANMACHINE INTERFACES (HMI)
30.1 INTRODUCTION
30.2 HMI/MMI DESIGN
30.3 DESIGN CASES
30.4 SUMMARY
30.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
30.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
30.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
31. ELECTRICAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
31.1 INTRODUCTION
31.2 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS
31.2.1 Selecting Voltages
31.2.2 Grounding
31.2.3 Wiring
31.2.4 Suppressors
31.2.5 PLC Enclosures
31.2.6 Wire and Cable Grouping
31.3 FAIL-SAFE DESIGN
31.4 SAFETY RULES SUMMARY
31.5 REFERENCES
31.6 SUMMARY
31.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
31.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
31.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
32. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
32.1 INTRODUCTION
32.1.1 Fail Safe Design
32.2 DEBUGGING
32.2.1 Troubleshooting
32.2.2 Forcing
32.3 PROCESS MODELLING
32.4 PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS
32.4.1 Developing a Program Structure
32.4.2 Program Verification and Simulation
32.5 DOCUMENTATION
32.6 COMMISIONING
32.7 REFERENCES
32.8 SUMMARY
32.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
32.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
32.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
33. SELECTING A PLC
33.1 INTRODUCTION
33.2 SPECIAL I/O MODULES
33.3 SUMMARY
33.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
33.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
33.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS
34. FUNCTION REFERENCE
34.1 FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
34.1.1 General Functions
34.1.2 Program Control
34.1.3 Timers and Counters
34.1.4 Compare
34.1.5 Calculation and Conversion
34.1.6 Logical
34.1.7 Move
34.1.8 File
34.1.9 List
34.1.10 Program Control
34.1.11 Advanced Input/Output
34.1.12 String
34.2 DATA TYPES


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