Feedback Systems: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers


Taken from What Is Feedback? A dynamical system is a system whose behavior changes over time, often in response to external stimulation or forcing. The term feedback refers to a situation in which two (or more) dynamical systems are connected together such that each system influences the other and their dynamics are thus strongly coupled. Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and the second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based on cause and effect tricky, and it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole. A consequence of this is that the behavior of feedback systems is often counter intuitive, and it is therefore necessary to resort to formal methods to understand them.


  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • What Is Feedback?
    • What Is Control?
    • Feedback Examples
    • Feedback Properties
    • Simple Forms of Feedback
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 2. System Modeling
    • Modeling Concepts
    • State Space Models
    • Modeling Methodology
    • Modeling Examples
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 3. Examples
    • Cruise Control
    • Bicycle Dynamics
    • Operational Amplifier Circuits
    • Computing Systems and Networks
    • Atomic Force Microscopy
    • Drug Administration
    • Population Dynamics
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 4. Dynamic Behavior
    • Solving Differential Equations
    • Qualitative Analysis
    • Stability
    • Lyapunov Stability Analysis
    • Parametric and Nonlocal Behavior
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 5. Linear Systems
    • Basic Definitions
    • The Matrix Exponential
    • Input/Output Response
    • Linearization
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 6. State Feedback
    • Reachability
    • Stabilization by State Feedback
    • State Feedback Design
    • Integral Action
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 7. Output Feedback
    • Observability
    • State Estimation
    • Control Using Estimated State
    • Kalman Filtering
    • A General Controller Structure
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 8. Transfer Functions
    • Frequency Domain Modeling
    • Derivation of the Transfer Function
    • Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions
    • The Bode Plot
    • Laplace Transforms
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 9. Frequency Domain Analysis
    • The Loop Transfer Function
    • The Nyquist Criterion
    • Stability Margins
    • Bode's Relations and Minimum Phase Systems
    • Generalized Notions of Gain and Phase
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 10. PID Control
    • Basic Control Functions
    • Simple Controllers for Complex Systems
    • PID Tuning
    • Integrator Windup
    • Implementation
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 11. Frequency Domain Design
    • Sensitivity Functions
    • Feed forward Design
    • Performance Specifications
    • Feedback Design via Loop Shaping
    • Fundamental Limitations
    • Design Example
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 12. Robust Performance
    • Modeling Uncertainty
    • Stability in the Presence of Uncertainty
    • Performance in the Presence of Uncertainty
    • Robust Pole Placement
    • Design for Robust Performance
    • Further Reading
    • Exercises




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