Micro grids and Active Distribution Networks

Power and energy engineers, academics, researchers and stakeholders everywhere are pondering the problems of depletion of fossil fuel resources, poor energy efficiency and environmental pollution. Hence there is a new trend of generating energy locally at distribution voltage level by using small-scale, low carbon, non-conventional and/or renewable energy sources, like natural gas, biogas, wind power, solar photovoltaic, fuel cells, micro turbines, Stirling engines, etc., and their integration into the utility distribution network. This is termed as dispersed or distributed generation (DG) and the generators are termed as distributed energy resources (DERs) or micro sources. In the late 1990s, the major issues related to DG were extensively investigated by the working groups of CIGRE and CIRED in their review reports. As part of the Kyoto Protocol, many countries are planning to cut down greenhouse gas emissions (carbon and nitrogen by-products) to counter climate change and global warming. Hence many governments are coming up with new energy generation and utilization policies to support proper utilization of these low-carbon generation technologies.




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